Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Most modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can be either the top layer or the back layer.
Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are also available. The cells are connected electrically in series, one to another to a desired voltage, and then in parallel to increase amperage. The wattage of the module is the mathematical product of the voltage and the amperage of the module.
A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and functions as its output interface. External connections for most photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. A USB power interface can also be used.
Module electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability (amperes) of the solar panel or the PV system. The conducting wires that take the current off the modules are sized according to the ampacity and may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated.
Monochrystalline Solar Panel
Cell Type Mono-crystalline, 156mm x 156mm
Cell Arrangement 72 (6 ˣ 12)
Dimensions 1960 x 992 x 40 mm
(77.2 x 39.1 x 1.57 in)
Weight 22.4 kg (49.4 lbs)
Front Cover 3.2 mm tempered glass
Frame Anodized aluminium alloy
J-Box IP67, 3 diodes
Cable 4 mm² (IEC) or 4 mm² & 12 AWG 1000 V (UL),
1000 mm (39.4 in) Connector T4 (IEC/UL)
Per Pallet 26 pieces, 635 kg (1400 lbs)
Per Container (40‘ HQ) 624 pieces